What is an LED Display Pixel?

In this comprehensive guide, we will examine all the ins and outs of LED screen pixels and their function.

What Are LED Screen Pixels and Why Are They Important?

In a display, each LED diode is an individual pixel. Pixels vary by size and density, and they inform the minimum and optimal viewing distances for your screen. LED tiles, which are made up of several LED modules, are used to construct an LED wall. These LED modules include LED clusters or LED packages, which are collections of pixels made up of red, blue, and green light-emitting diodes (LEDs).

As an LED display distributor, you should understand concepts like pixel pitch and viewing distance to design the perfect LED screen for your application.

Pixel Pitch & Pixel Size

The pixel pitch number communicates the distance between the LEDs on the wall. This establishes a recommended minimum viewing distance for the intended image. The closer together the LEDs are on your display, the closer your allowed viewing distance can be. The ideal viewing distance is typically two to three times the number of the pixel pitch. For instance, a pixel pitch of 10 (P10) would require at least a distance of 20 meters to achieve optimal detail.

Of course, pixels size determines it as well. The smaller the pixel, the more detailed your screen will be. Pixel size also limits the pixel pitch for you LED display. A narrow pixel pitch is great for indoor applications, while a wide pitch is used in outdoor settings.

Pixel Pitch & Pixel Size
Pixel Pitch & Cost

Pixel Pitch & Cost

Generally speaking, costs decrease with increasing pixel pitch. Greater resolution is universally provided by lower pixel pitch, but the cost of materials and production make it more expensive. Simply said, a higher pixel density is necessary for more LED clusters. A higher LED pixel pitch panel can additionally need more maintenance, which could raise after-sales expenses. These expenses not only include repair and maintenance, but also the cost of operation.

Optimal Viewing Distance

Assuming you are aware of the positioning of your viewers with respect to the LED display, you may several methods to determine the appropriate pixel pitch that your project requires. Image fidelity is maintained at the ideal viewing distance, but if the observer were to get any closer, the image quality would drop or the screen would appear pixelated.

  1. Formula: OVD (m) = pixel pitch x 3000/1000
  2. 10x Rule: OVD (feet) = pixel pitch x 10
  3. Visual Acuity Distance (mm) = pixel pitch x 3438
  4. Average Comfortable Viewing Distance: subjective estimate based on surveying many people

By figuring out the ideal viewing distance for your LED screen, you will get the most for your money.

Optimal Viewing Distance
Resolution

Resolution

Resolution depends on both the number of pixels present in a display area and how closely those pixels are arranged. Besides viewing distance, you should also consider visibility, color levels, color temperature, and contrast levels. The visibility of an LED display should be double its readability. Higher resolution also requires greater color levels and anti-flex-enhanced contrast.

For closer distances, higher resolution quality is preferable. For longer viewing distances, lower resolution and definition are preferable. Also, small pitch usually means higher resolution. Common resolutions include:

  • 1024 x 768
  • 1920 x 1080 (16:9, 1K )
  • 2560 x 1440 (16:9, 2K )
  • 4096 x 2160 ( 16:9, 4K)
  • 7680 x 4320 ( 16:9,8K )

What Pixel Pitch to Choose for Your LED Display?

To choose the most suitable pixel pitch for your LED screen, you will have to consider 5 main points: screen size, viewing distance, indoor/outdoor, resolution, and budget.

Screen Size

You can work backwards from the intended size of your LED board to determine the ideal pixel pitch. As a general rule of thumb, divide your horizontal dimension (in feet) by 6.3 to get your pixel pitch for a standard resolution of 1920 x 1080.

Viewing Distance

There are many methods to determine your perfect pixel pitch if you know the viewing angle. Simply work backwards from the formulas shown previously.

Indoor/Outdoor

Outdoor screens can employ a bigger pixel pitch since they will typically be viewed from a greater average viewing distance. Indoor screens, however, are typically visible from across a room or lounge at the furthest point, making a smaller pixel pitch more suitable in these applications. Outdoor LED displays use pitches 3mm to16mm, while indoor displays use 0.8mm to 4mm pitches.

Resolution

Pitch and resolution are inversely proportional to each other. A smaller pixel pitch is required if you require a better resolution. Similar to this, you can utilize a higher pixel pitch if you don’t mind using a lower resolution.

Budget

As mentioned, cost is related to pixel pitch in LED displays and screen. It is useless to know about a better pixel pitch if it is out of your price range, thus always take your budget into account when selecting a pixel pitch.

Typical Measurements

Optimal Viewing Distance Pixel Pitch
2.5m 1mm
3.75m 1.5mm
5m 2mm
6.25m 2.5mm
7.5m 3mm
10m 4mm
15m 6mm
20m 8mm
25m 10mm
40m 16mm

LED Display Pixel FAQ

How is LED pixel pitch calculated?

Pixel pitch is the density of pixels. It is calculated accordingly; you can delete the number of pixels in a row by the width of the screen.

How is LED pixel resolution calculated?

The pixel pitch number specifies the distance (in mm) between the LEDs on the wall. The resolution per square meter is calculated as (1/pixel pitch)/(pixel pitch).

Is pixel pitch the same as pixel size?

Pixel pitch is merely a size measurement. The size of one pixel plus the size of the space between subsequent pixels is known as the pixel pitch.

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